Two multi-trillion dollar questions loom over the future of competition: which technologies will shape the destiny of nations, and how can America be poised to gain positional advantage in each destiny-shaping technology? The innovations of the last two decades primarily unfolded in the digital realm. The next phase of technological innovation is an intersection of both emerging and evolving general purpose technologies (GPTs)1 unfolding across three intersecting domains: the physical (atoms), the digital (bits), and the biotechnical (cells).2 GPTs, like electricity, support all aspects of modern society and usher in revolutions far beyond their initial technical scope, driving economic growth for decades once they gain wide adoption. Looking out to 2025-2030, the competition over additional GPTs including biotechnology and new forms of energy generation, and areas where they converge like smart manufacturing, should be priorities requiring the United States to begin planning now.
The next phase of technological innovation is an intersection of both emerging and evolving general purpose technologies (GPTs) unfolding across three intersecting domains: the physical (atoms), the digital (bits), and the biotechnical (cells).
This expansion of innovation portends a tectonic shift of the global geopolitical and economic status quo. Nations – especially China – are already trying to stake dominant positions in these century-shaping technologies. Positioning the United States for advantage in the GPTs of the 21st century will require investing not only in the research and development of these technologies, but also in bar-setting technology objectives to harness our public-private ecosystem and the resultant changes to improve our economy and society. With a growing number of complex issues demanding finite resources and leadership attention, the United States should prioritize and begin making the moves likely to serve as the foundations for subsequent step changes in the history of technology.3
The contours of 2030 technological leadership will likely flow from these five general purpose technologies — AI, compute, networks, biotechnology, energy storage/generation — and the convergence of these technologies, which manifests most apparently now in smart or advanced manufacturing. At the same time, other currently unforeseeable opportunities and threats could prove existential in this timeframe and require concerted national effort. In this chapter, we sketch some of the tech opportunities most apparent on the horizon that the United States should seize to ensure its long-term competitiveness.
AI sits at the center of a constellation of several emerging technologies and is increasingly driving progress in other fields. A few examples include its already-existent capacity for accelerating drug discovery,4 discovering new materials that will unlock new applications from chemistry to manufacturing,5 enabling autonomous vehicles to rapidly adapt to new environments,6 and controlling the plasma within a fusion device via deep reinforcement learning.7 Advances in large “foundation models” for both image generation and natural language processing continue to defy expectations,8 with recent models capable of generating accurate photorealistic images on demand.9 Researchers are already exploring combining language models with computer vision to enable AI systems to not only recognize objects but also better infer context.10 Robotics will also benefit from improvements in AI advancements’ ability to sense environments and make decisions.11
U.S. leadership will entail not only continuing to ensure that American and partner-based entities are driving the frontier in AI research, but that those institutions are addressing the challenges of predictability and bias so that AI yields positive and inclusive outcomes. An example of a bold AI objective would be queryable AI systems that enable human users to better understand why an AI system made certain decisions, which could bolster trust in AI systems and also help humans detect and mitigate bias.12 As the NSCAI noted, how AI systems reason remains a research frontier and such a goal could help accelerate progress in the field.13
LLMs “Ghost Chapter”
Artificial intelligence has advanced to the point where Large Language Models (LLMs) trained on portions of the Internet can coherently diagnose geopolitics and prescribe reasonably sensible policy recommendations. We asked three LLMs — OpenAI’s GPT-3, Hugging Face’s BLOOM, and a model developed by Anthropic — to answer some of the key questions that this report seeks to address. SCSP authors generated multiple responses to each question and selected the response that they judged most appropriately answered the question that was posed:
Is the United States or China winning the global techno-economic competition?
“China is giving the United States a run for its money in the global techno-economic competition. China is investing heavily in research and development, high-tech industries, and infrastructure, and it is quickly closing the gap with the United States in many areas of technology. However, the United States still maintains an edge overall with its leading universities and companies, entrepreneurial culture, openness to global talent, and strong investments in research and development. The global tech race between the two countries will likely remain fierce for many years to come.” — Anthropic14
Overall, what are the most important factors in the U.S.-China techno-economic competition today?
“Overall the most important factors in the U.S.-China techno-economic competition today are China’s economic transition, China’s increasing focus on its own innovation and science, the U.S.’ own transition toward more balanced innovation across its economy, and the U.S.’ growing need for high-tech equipment and systems. The U.S. remains an economic superpower and is the leading technology and innovation force in the world today. China is still far behind the U.S. in that regard and China is becoming a more significant competitor as it moves to fulfill its promise as the world’s leading country and power.” — BLOOM15
Which technologies will most significantly transform the economy, society, and national
security between now and 2030?
“Between now and 2030, several technologies will likely most significantly transform the economy, society, and national security. These include artificial intelligence, robotics and automation, biotechnology and biomedicine, renewable energy, quantum computing, the Internet of Things, fifth-generation wireless networks or 5G, materials science, and autonomous vehicles. These technologies will drive dramatic gains in productivity and economic growth, revolutionize manufacturing and transportation, enhance human capabilities, and reshape the global balance of economic and military power.” — Anthropic16
How should a nation judge which technologies will be future geopolitical battlegrounds?
“The United States has been a world leader in technology for decades, but the rise of China and other nations has challenged that dominance. As the world becomes more interconnected, it is important for the United States to identify which technologies will be future geopolitical battlegrounds.
There are a number of factors that should be considered when making this determination. First, it is important to identify which technologies are critical to the United States’ economic and national security. These are the technologies that the United States must maintain a competitive edge in order to protect its interests.
Second, it is important to consider which technologies are becoming increasingly important globally. These are the technologies that other nations are investing in and developing, and which could give them a competitive advantage over the United States.
Finally, it is important to consider which technologies are emerging and have the potential to be game-changers. These are the technologies that could upend the status quo and create new opportunities for the United States. The United States must be proactive in identifying which technologies will be future geopolitical battlegrounds. By doing so, it can ensure that it remains a world leader in these critical areas.” — GPT-317
As impressive as these responses may be, today’s state of the art LLMs still produce responses that are subject to bias, are irrelevant, and/or can present incorrect information as if it were factual. These models are also limited by the quality and recency of the data on which they are trained. For example, Anthropic’s model, trained on data from 2021, produced the following response:
What is the likelihood that Russia invades Ukraine in 2022?
“The likelihood that Russia will invade Ukraine in 2022 is low. Russia is unlikely to risk a major military confrontation with Ukraine and its allies by invading next year. Russia has shown little interest in resuming large-scale hostilities in Ukraine after the conflicts of 2014 and 2019. However, Russia could take other aggressive actions against Ukraine in 2022, such as conducting cyber attacks or military exercises near the border.” — Anthropic18
Most humans paying attention to the news would know that Russia invaded Ukraine in 2022 because our understanding of the world around us updates in real-time. However, an AI model trained on a static dataset from 2021 would not have knowledge of Russia’s invasion until retrained on new data. Nevertheless, the Anthropic model’s answer may in fact represent conventional wisdom at the time it was trained, failing, like many human analysts did at the time, to predict Russian President Vladimir Putin’s behavior.
LLMs reflect both the promise and perils posed by AI and emerging technologies writ large. While LLMs contain significant limitations today and will always carry associated risks, they are on pace to advance at an accelerating rate, with various research efforts underway around the globe to continue to advance the state of the art. As these models become ever more capable, nations will undoubtedly seek to harness them for economic, military, and national security advantage. Governments will also be challenged to decide if and how these models should be regulated to ensure they are not employed for nefarious purposes. With China determined to surpass the United States in AI leadership, democracies must choose whether to shape and constrain these models in line with our values, or cede this cornerstone of the international competition to a rival.
Regarded as a mature GPT, computing remains a key driver of progress in AI, facilitated by continued progress in microelectronics. Today, the locus of compute is evolving.19 Edge computing could alter the roles of the data center and the cloud and drive new requirements for efficient processors and improved networking.20 The nation needs continued investment to compete in promising novel computing paradigms. As existing semiconductor technology runs up against the laws of physics with the end of Moore’s law,21 multiple paradigms appear to be on the cusp.
In quantum computing, the United States continues to demonstrate technical progress, bringing practical quantum computing closer to reality.22 Once successfully scaled, quantum computing will be important for national security and provide economic benefits by enabling simulations of complex phenomena that cannot be performed today.23 Opportunities also exist for the United States to work with European and Japanese partners to ensure a secure supply chain of critical quantum computing components.24 Meanwhile, advances in microelectronics, such as low-cost, extremely low-power transistors,25 will make possible novel paradigms like neuromorphic computing, which models the human mind.26 Biological computers — which use molecules such as proteins and DNA as inputs to cells — are also becoming increasingly feasible and could unlock an entirely new way to perform computational calculations and store and process data. For example, researchers in early 2022 demonstrated the feasibility of archiving images and videos in the DNA of living E. coli cells.27
Building on the transformational impact of the information and communication technologies (ICTs) that digitized our world, the Internet of Things and next generation networks — and linkages with the physical and biotechnical worlds — will create wide-ranging impacts and remain an arena of competition.28 China is increasingly also a key player in the building of undersea cables,29 and is emerging as a competitive player in the digital platforms that the world uses for communicating and processing data.30 The United States and its allies need to not only plug this existing gap but must also lean forward to develop future network technologies, which could include next generation wireless networks (i.e. 6G), satellite Internet constellations like Starlink, and other novel paradigms. One moonshot-like objective would be a ubiquitous, secure global connectivity program from a space-based constellation that would expand connectivity to the Internet for underserved areas within the United States while also providing a platform to help global populations circumvent censorship by authoritarian regimes.31
The competition to define 6G is already beginning.32 The United States will likely need to work closely with key partners and allies that host wireless equipment manufacturers to ensure that 6G is developed and available on the market with reasonable speed, to avoid domination by Chinese firms.33 Meanwhile, advances in quantum communications networks that use quantum phenomena to control and transmit information could lead to the emergence of a highly secure “quantum internet” by the end of the decade.34 The Department of Energy’s 2020 blueprint could serve as the basis for a bold national effort to realize such a network.35 China was the first country to send intertwined quantum particles from a satellite to ground stations in 2017,36 and will likely continue to invest heavily in researching quantum communications networks.37
Synthetic biology will transform sectors as diverse as agriculture, materials, and energy.38 Several factors are behind these advances: the coupling of biotechnology research with AI;39 the decreasing costs in genomic sequencing (at a rate faster than Moore’s Law);40 the improving capacity to rapidly synthesize DNA; and the advancing ability to manipulate biological systems to produce specific chemical and molecular compounds.41 The United States is today the global leader in genetic engineering and molecular biology,42 and has an opportunity to unleash an entire “bioeconomy”43 that is estimated to eventually be worth anywhere between $4-30 trillion and capable of producing up to 60 percent of the physical inputs to the global economy.44 An example of a bold biotechnology objective would be to create a national synthetic biology stack – akin to an application programming interface (API) for software – that could enable more companies and researchers to expedite and scale the production of new products like materials in the short term and enable the engineering of more complex biological systems down the road. The United States also could scale DARPA’s Pandemic Prevention Platform (P3)45 into a broader and true “BioShield” for the nation that combines specific technology aspects and public-private partnerships to “shield” the nation against future biological disasters.
Energy Generation and Storage
Growing private sector investment and innovation in both nuclear fission and fusion electricity production offer an alternative pathway to meeting future U.S. — and global — energy needs and satisfy national security and climate goals.46 Novel fission reactor designs presage smaller reactors that cost less to build and are safer to operate.47 Significant progress in fusion machines capable of producing more energy than they consume indicates that practical fusion power generation may finally be within reach in the next decade.48 Fusion energy offers a step change that could amount to a zero-carbon way of producing energy that upends the long-standing energy geopolitics, reducing reliance on foreign energy markets, and advancing a wide array of other fields, including some that we cannot yet predict. Nuclear energy is a priority for China, which is planning to spend $440 million to build 150 new reactors in the next 15 years, more than the rest of the world has built in the past three decades,49 while concurrently researching fusion machines for energy generation.50
A bold national objective would be to call for delivery of fusion energy to our national grid by 2028.51 A bar-setting challenge could incentivize a race among U.S. fusion developers to cross the breakeven threshold for a fusion machine — producing more energy than it consumes — could catalyze a world-leading fusion energy industry that addresses long-term national security and climate goals.52 The importance of national energy storage objectives will march together with demand for new sources of energy generation. Continued U.S. investment in the development of novel energy storage technologies — especially alternative chemistries beyond lithium-ion53 — and domestic battery manufacturing capability will only grow in strategic importance,54 as improvements in batteries are likely to undergird progress in a host of future transportation technologies from electric and flying cars to delivery drones, as well as making a renewable energy-based grid a reality.55 China’s hold on today’s battery supply chain underscores the importance of U.S. innovation and investment in this area to insulate itself from geopolitical risk.
The United States cannot match China’s manufacturing dominance but it can offset it.56 The emerging biomanufacturing sector, technologies such as AI, and additive manufacturing, present the United States new opportunities to build on existing efforts to revitalize and reinvent its manufacturing base.57 A strong domestic manufacturing capability is also key to a vibrant innovation ecosystem as it reduces the barriers for bringing new technologies to market.58 Biomanufacturing could serve as the basis of a future multi-trillion dollar manufacturing base and provides another opportunity for the United States to regain a foothold in industries that have migrated to other locales.59 The combination of AI, augmented/virtual reality, additive manufacturing, and robotics can be harnessed for manufacturing to enhance productivity and quality, improve worker training, and allow factories to more quickly reorganize themselves to change what they produce on demand.60 The creation of digital twins coupled with AI-based simulation and modeling can also reduce costs and optimize production processes.61 New models for deploying robotics where small firms are able to acquire robots-as-a-service could also enable more U.S. manufacturers to take advantage of the productivity gains provided by automation.62
Opportunities and Threats
Technology holds amazing potential to solve some of the greatest challenges of our time. Yet it can also produce novel threats. Harnessing the opportunities while neutralizing the threats will require concerted national efforts. Could water technology address fundamental issues like the availability of water for the human race? Water scarcity is increasingly a global challenge with national security implications for the United States.63 Yet investment in technological innovations to meet these challenges remains limited and breakthroughs have lagged as a result.64 What about neutralizing AI-enabled disinformation platforms that use autonomy to divide our nation? While many existing efforts aim to detect and remove mis- and disinformation,65 concerted efforts across government, the private sector, and philanthropy could focus on improving citizenry resilience to mis- and disinformation. The appropriate toolset could include a suite of technologies alongside other types of interventions, such as improving education and media literacy.
As the world enters another disruptive technological age, the United States faces a rival in China that is already pivoting and positioning to dominate a similar slate of “deep tech” and “frontier tech.”66 Whether the United States can rise to the occasion and harness the promise of the pending wave of revolutionary technologies will determine who wins the 21st century.
1. No single definition of a GPT exists. Bresnahan and Trajtenberg in 1995 defined “general purpose technologies” as technologies that are characterized by their pervasiveness, inherent potential for technical improvements, and “innovational complementarities” that give rise to scale. Timothy F. Bresnahan & Manuel Trajtenberg, General Purpose Technologies ‘Engines of Growth’, Journal of Econometrics (1995). Bekar, Carlaw, and Lipsey added additional criteria including that: a GPT has no substitutes, and downstream innovations enabled by a GPT would not have otherwise been possible. Clifford Bekar, et al., General Purpose Technologies in Theory, Applications and Controversy: A Review, Simon Fraser University (2016).
2. “Atoms, bits, and cells” is a simple mnemonic we use to explain that the emerging and disruptive technologies of our day are touching the fundamentals of the physical (e.g. new metals), digital (e.g. new compute paradigms), and biological realms (e.g. new capabilities like CRISPR). Innovation is also increasingly crossing over in these domains such as DeepMind’s AlphaFold which predicts a protein’s 3D structure from its amino acid sequence. See AlphaFold, DeepMind (last accessed 2022).
3. For more information on a national process for technology competition, see Chapter 1 of this report.
4. Ewen Callaway, What’s Next for AlphaFold and the AI Protein-Folding Revolution, Nature (2022).
5. Brian L. DeCost, et al., Scientific AI in Materials Science: A Path to a Sustainable and Scalable Path, Machine Learning: Science and Technology (2020); Tom Fleischman, AI Powers Autonomous Materials Discovery, Cornell Chronicle (2021).
6. Will Douglas Heaven, The Big New Idea for Making Self-Driving Cars That Can Go Anywhere, MIT Technology Review (2022).
7. Jonas Degrave, et al., Magnetic Control of Tokamak Plasmas Through Deep Reinforcement Learning, Nature (2022).
8. Huge “Foundation Models” Are Turbo-Charging AI Progress, The Economist (2022).
9. Sharan Narang & Aakanksha Chowdhery, Pathways Language Model (PaLM): Scaling to 540 Billion Parameters for Breakthrough Performance, Google AI Blog (2022); Will Douglas Heaven, This Horse-Riding Astronaut is a Milestone in AI’s Journey to Make Sense of the World, MIT Technology Review (2022).
10. Kyle Wiggers, Deep Science: Combining Vision and Language Could Be the Key to More Capable AI, Tech Crunch (2022).
11. Teejay Boris, This Robot Shapes Letters Using Play-Doh Like a Kid, Thanks to AI, TechTimes (2022).
12. For more information about mitigating bias in AI systems, see Chapter 3 of this report.
13. Final Report, National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence at 35 (2021).
14. SCSP generated this text with a LLM developed by Anthropic. SCSP takes ultimate responsibility for the content of this publication.
15. SCSP generated this text with Bloom-2b5, an LLM developed by Huggingface. SCSP takes ultimate responsibility for the content of this publication.
16. SCSP generated this text with a LLM developed by Anthropic. SCSP takes ultimate responsibility for the content of this publication.
17. SCSP generated this text with GPT-3, an LLM developed by OpenAI. SCSP takes ultimate responsibility for the content of this publication.
18. SCSP generated this text with a LLM developed by Anthropic. SCSP takes ultimate responsibility for the content of this publication.
19. John Shalf, The Future of Computing Beyond Moore’s Law, The Royal Society (2020).
20. Haftay Gebreslasie Abreha, et al., Federated Learning in Edge Computing: A Systematic Survey, Sensors (2022).
21. “Moore’s Law is a techno-economic model that has enabled the information technology industry to double the performance and functionality of digital electronics roughly every 2 years within a fixed cost, power and area.” John Shalf, The Future of Computing Beyond Moore’s Law, The Royal Society (2020).
22. Edward Parker, et al., An Assessment of the U.S. and Chinese Industrial Bases in Quantum Technology, RAND Corporation (2022).
23. NIST announced its selection of the first set of quantum resistant encryption algorithms in July 2022. Quantum computers hold the potential to be able to break the encryption standards widely in use today. NIST’s selection is a key step towards transitioning to quantum resistant cryptographic algorithms. NIST Announces First Four Quantum-Resistant Cryptographic Algorithms, National Institute of Standards and Technology (2022); Quantum Computing Applications and Simulations, U.S. Department of Energy (last accessed 2022).
24. Edward Parker, et al., An Assessment of the U.S. and Chinese Industrial Bases in Quantum Technology, RAND Corporation (2022).
25. Sungsik Lee & Arokia Nathan, Subthreshold Schottky-Barrier Thin-Film Transistors With Ultralow Power and High Intrinsic Gain, Science (2016).
26. David Rand, What’s This Neuromorphic Computing You’re Talking About?, Hewlett Packard Enterprise (2021).
27. Emily Waltz, Scientists Store Video Data in the DNA of Living Organisms, IEEE Spectrum (2017).
28. Volker Ziegler, How to Make 6G the Next General Purpose Technology, IEEE (2021).
29. Matthew Goodman, Securing Asia’s Subsea Network: U.S. Interests and Strategic Options, Center for Strategic and International Studies (2022).
30. Zheping Huang, TikTok Turns On the Money Machine, Bloomberg (2022); Alice Kantor, Cloud Becomes New Front Line Between China and the West, Financial Times (2021).
31. SpaceX’s Starlink program has already demonstrated the technical capacity for such systems. See Paulina Duran, SpaceX’s Starlink Expects It Can Provide Global Coverage Around September, Reuters (2021).
32. Michael Koziol, 6G is Years Away, but the Power Struggles Have Already Begun, IEEE Spectrum (2021).
33. Trivium Tech Daily: June 22, 2022, Trivium China (2022).
34. Cade Metz, ”Quantum Internet” Inches Closer with Advance in Data Teleportation, The New York Times (2022).
35. U.S. Department of Energy Unveils Blueprint for the Quantum Internet at ‘Launch to the Future: Quantum Internet’ Event, U.S. Department of Energy (2020).
36. Gabriel Popkin, China’s Quantum Satellite Achieves ‘Spooky Action’ at Record Distance, Science (2017).
37. Rachel Courtland, China’s 2,000-km Quantum Link Is Almost Complete, IEEE Spectrum (2016); The World’s First Integrated Quantum Communications Network, Phys.org (2021).
38. 2022 Trends Report: Synthetic Biology, Biotechnology, & AgTech, Future Today Institute (2022); Christopher A. Voigt, Synthetic Biology 2020-2030: Six Commercially-Available Products That are Changing Our World, Nature Communications (2020).
39. See e.g., Neil Savage, Tapping Into the Drug Discovery Potential of AI, Biopharma Dealmakers (2021).
40. Kris A. Wetterstrand, DNA Sequencing Costs: Data, National Human Genome Research Institute (2021).
41. Future Today Institute 2022 Tech Trends Report Synthetic Biology, Biotechnology, Agtech, Future Today Institute (2022).
42. Task Force on Synthetic Biology and the Bioeconomy, Schmidt Futures (2022).
43. The Congress, through the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2022, created the National Security Commission on Emerging Biotechnology as a strong positive and initial step to harness biotechnology. Pub. L. 117-81, National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2022 (2021). This congressional action can be all the more impactful if complimented by development of a coordinated national-level action to generate a strategic vision, efforts to address talent development, and efforts to bolster the commercial ecosystem such as development of a distributed network of domestic biomanufacturing facilities around the country.
44. Michael Chui, et al., The Bio Revolution: Innovations Transforming Economies, Societies, and Our Lives, McKinsey Global Institute (2020); Remarks by NSC Senior Director for Technology and National Security Tarun Chhabra at the Brookings Institution, Brookings (2022) (at 19:19 minutes).
45. Amy Jenkins, Pandemic Prevention Platform (P3), Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (last accessed 2022).
46. Lizette Chapman, Tech Billionaires Rally Around Nuclear as Energy Crisis Looms, Bloomberg (2022).
47. Zach Winn, Commercializing Next-Generation Nuclear Energy Technology, MIT News Office (2020).
48. Helion Passes 100 Million Degrees Celsius, World Nuclear News (2021); David Chandler, MIT-designed Project Achieves Major Advance Toward Fusion Energy, MIT News Office (2021); see also Readout of the White House Summit on Developing a Bold Decadal Vision for Commercial Fusion Energy, The White House (2022).
49. Dan Murtaugh, China’s Climate Goals Hinge on $440 Million Nuclear Buildout, Bloomberg (2022).
50. Ben Turner, China’s $1 Trillion ‘Artificial Sun’ Fusion Reactor Just Got Five Times Hotter than the Sun, Live Science (2022).
51. Multiple leading commercial companies now project that they will complete a successful demonstration of a net-positive fusion reaction within the next few years and plan to launch fully-operational facilities by 2030. See The Global Fusion Industry in 2022, Fusion Industry Association (last accessed 2022). Additionally, the U.S. Government recently launched a laudable decadal vision for commercial fusion energy. Readout of the White House Summit on Developing a Bold Decadal Vision for Commercial Fusion Energy, The White House (2022).
52. 60 Years of Progress, ITER (last accessed 2022).
53. Energy Report Part 1: Energy Storage, TechNext (2022) (SCSP-commissioned work product).
54. Final Report, National Security Commission on Artificial Intelligence at 265-266 (2021).
55. Joann Muller, Flying Taxis, Delivery Drones and More are Finally Taking Off, Axios (2022).
56. Felix Richter, China Is The World’s Manufacturing Superpower, Statista (2021).
57. SCSP engagement with a venture capital firm (April 2022); The Biden-Harris Plan to Revitalize American Manufacturing and Secure Critical Supply Chains in 2022, The White House (2022); John F. Sargent Jr., The Obama Administration’s Proposal to Establish a National Network for Manufacturing Innovation, Congressional Research Service (2014).
58. Katie Rae, 2021 Tough Tech Landscape, The Engine (2021).
59. Michael Chui, et al., The Bio Revolution: Innovations Transforming Economies, Societies, and Our Lives, McKinsey Global Institute (2020). The White House has a plan to “revitalize American manufacturing and secure critical supply chains,” although the plan does not mention biomanufacturing specifically. See The Biden-Harris Plan to Revitalize American Manufacturing and Secure Critical Supply Chains in 2022, The White House (2022).
60. See J.S. Srai, et al., Unlocking Business Model Innovation Through Advanced Manufacturing, World Economic Forum at 18-19 (2022).
61. Scott Martin, What Is a Digital Twin?, Nvidia (2021).
62. Thomas Black, Robot Subscription Services Let Companies Automate on the Cheap, Bloomberg (2022).
63. U.S. Action Plan on Global Water Security, U.S. Department of State (2022).
64. A bold “water technology” goal such as scaling atmospheric water harvesting in projects like Hydration to Everyone (H2E) could yield significant global and national security benefits with a government nudge. Harvesting Water from the Air, X (2021).
65. A sample of ongoing initiatives in both government and the private sector includes the Department of State’s Global Engagement Center, the FBI’s Foreign Influence Task Force, the Election Integrity Partnership, the Atlantic Council’s Digital Forensic Research Lab, the Poynter Institute’s International Fact-Checking Network, and various Internet platforms’ content moderation efforts.
66. Kimberly Cairns, Why China is on its Way to be World’s Next Leader of Deep Technology, The West Australian (2022); What Tech Does China Want?, The Economist (2021); Arjun Kharpal, In Battle with U.S., China to Focus on 7 ‘Frontier’ Technologies from Chips to Brain-Computer Fusion, CNBC (2021).